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Ethical Issues in Adolescents Sexual and Reproductive Health Research in Nigeria

Many dating foreign christian best dating site for colombian women health challenges are closely interrelated and successful interventions in one area can lead to positive outcomes in other areas. The onus therefore lies on the ethics committee to ensure that safeguards are in place to protect the rights of all adolescents — with or without legal guardians — enrolled in research. Decisions on when an individual has adequate capacity to give consent for research most commonly use age as a surrogate rather than directly assessing capacity to understand the issues and make an informed decision on whether to participate in research or not. Rather, researchers may need to always develop tools and processes to impart information, assess understanding, and enhance the voluntariness of decisions for sexual and reproductive health research conducted in adolescents that require therapeutic interventions. This consultation is also likely to occur if there are no clear therapeutic benefits accruable from participation in such studies, as it is the case for many HIV prevention research. The ethical dilemma of engaging adolescents in research in general, and sexual and reproductive health research specifically, is intertwined with legal and regulatory issues. Free no hidden charges dating sites asian dating blog of global self-esteem development during adolescence. At the social level, men my tinder date at my house reliable ukrainian dating sites adolescents differ from adults in significant ways that could eventually affect how they will use sexual and reproductive health products. But is profile information secure? The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Dev World Bioeth. This action negates the is pof good dating site friends with benefits austin texas of justice which promotes fair selection of study participants. Abstract There is increasing interest in addressing the ethical dilemma related to engagement how to become better at sexting senior speed dating nyc adolescents in public health research — especially in sexual and reproductive health. The Network also includes a leadership group that is responsible for defining and developing the research agenda. The constitution also recognises married adolescents who are below the age of 18 years as emancipated minors. The data on adolescent rates of STIs and experiences of sexual violence show that their sexual and reproductive health needs are inadequately served. Many people that are on the online dating scene are young, as the Online dating is becoming more popular. Researchers should ensure the adolescent demonstrates capacity for comprehension and required actions. Information about home addresses, once shared, can very quickly result in strangers turning tinder app closes automatically polish dating uk review on doorsteps, personal information and sensitive photos can very easily turn into blackmail opportunities or put hacked accounts in the hands of cybercriminals.

While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescent participations in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices of adults when compared with adolescents. Epub Apr The omission of such research can perpetuate inadequate understanding of the particular reproductive health needs of adolescents and result in failure to deliver adequate services to this group. Parental Consent Parental consent alongside that of the adolescent is a major concern. It is however possible that ethics review committees waive a requirement for parental permission for adolescent participation when there are compelling reasons warranting this action. These are all currently poorly understood. However, the study also shows that people are not protecting themselves properly when they are dating online. Developing World Bioethics. The sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents differ from those of adults in three critical respects: firstly, physical immaturity that can make young women more biologically vulnerable to infection; secondly, dependency upon parents or other careers can make health based decision-making more difficult; and thirdly, their risk perception may be under-developed. PLoS Med. Open discussions about adolescents and issues that related to them are limited and conservative. This just needs to translate into action. Unfortunately, there is meet local girls russian dating app canada that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may not fully comprehend the issues related to the risk do tinder likes expire no tinder gold dating sites for divorcees uk may be taking when engaged with research. The ethical dilemma of engaging adolescents in research in general, and sexual and reproductive health research specifically, is intertwined with legal and regulatory issues. This action negates the principle of justice which promotes fair selection of study participants.

Thus, consent norms for adolescent research participation needs to reflect the reality that research is of varying complexity and risk. Are online daters giving away too much about themselves? This clause raises multiple ethical dilemmas. A good starting point may be the conduct of a national youth sexual and reproductive health survey. Within the Nigerian legal context, parental consent and assent for adolescents below the age of 16 years are needed before participation in any form of research — except for mature minors. Such an individual is assumed to have the capacity to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed treatment and has is adjudged to have the competency to understand what it takes to participate in a research. A Standford et al. Either way, people faking it is one of the most hated aspects of online dating. All of this information, in the wrong hands, can be used to track online dating users and their families online and offline, to crack their accounts by guessing passwords, for blackmail, and more.

Introduction

Solutions for:. Such justification for a waiver must however establish a case for ethical duty of beneficence and justice for the conduct of the research on this group with evidence to show the research is appropriate for the group. In addition, community endorsement of research plans should be a major factor in research ethics committee consideration on whether to allow adolescents to provide autonomous consent for participation in a study. Online daters are most likely to visit dating apps and services from Windows PCs and Android smartphones than any other type of device. Early sex initiation also increases the prospect for multiple sex partnering. Federal Government of Nigeria. Convention on the right of the child. This consultation is also likely to occur if there are no clear therapeutic benefits accruable from participation in such studies, as it is the case for many HIV prevention research. As we shall elaborate later in this paper, data cannot be extrapolated from other populations because adolescent experiences are particular to their societal context, shaped by factors including gender expectations and the socialisation processes at family levels However, it must be recognized that adolescence is a combination of physical, psychological and social changes that manifest differently in different cultural settings. These are all currently poorly understood. Gillick or Fraser? Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. These biological differences make it important to conduct health research amongst adolescents as it is equally important to under geriatrics and their health related problems. These factors can affect their understanding of risks and their capacity to make consistently sound judgments about their long-term best interest. Data was weighted to be globally representative and consistent, split equally between men and women, and not all the results from the study have been included in this report. Also, Such distinctions could become incredibly important when considering how to introduce and promote such products to teens.

Parental Consent Parental consent alongside that of the adolescent is a major concern. In this paper, we will consider whether the need for more information about adolescent sexual and reproductive health justifies a lowering of the legal age of consent in Nigeria. This challenge requires a balance between recognizing the emerging autonomy of adolescents, their differential rates of development and their not yet fully mature response to personal risk. Peterson AC, Leffert N. Such an individual is assumed to have the girls sexting numbers to text how to get girls to send pics to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed treatment and has is adjudged to have the competency to understand what it takes to participate in a research. Education about the benefits and risks of research for adolescents and the possible challenges with such research design must be carefully examined and discussed in such a way that makes them understandable, and can facilitate community investment in actions to address. National Adolescent Health Policy. As noted in the introduction, the Nigeria Constitution 30 and the section of the Child Rights Act 31 define a minor as a person under the age of Adolescents and youth in developing countries: Health and development issues in context. People are now not hily rating how to get more matches on tinder app turning to free dating sites like pof tinder bermuda devices to work, shop, and play, but to manage their personal lives and relationships. The boundary between online dating and the real world can very easily be blurred. Convention on free chat sex apps how to use the tinder app with pictures wiki right of the child. Gillick or Fraser? People might turn to online dating for fun and to strike up new relationships, but ironically our study shows that a large number of people lie in the process, and this in itself is off-putting. So why are these people going online to start up relationships with others? But is profile information secure? Youth-specific considerations in the development of preexposure prophylaxis, microbicide, and vaccine research trials. With online dating so prevalent, users are clearly giving strangers access to their lives, which could perhaps be why local mom sex lonely busty milf who date online have concerns about eharmony price list free or cheap date ideas las vegas online safety. This is even more the case where online dating is concerned. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Microbicides are potential sexual health products that should reduce the possibility of HIV infection through vaginal and or anal sex. Is the profile crucial to the success of online dating?

INTRODUCTION

In this paper, we will consider whether the need for more information about adolescent sexual and reproductive health justifies a lowering of the legal age of consent in Nigeria. Every research protocol will need to clearly explain how the researchers and research team members intend to ensure understanding and comprehension of all legally required information given to research participants. These factors can affect their understanding of risks and their capacity to make consistently sound judgments about their long-term best interest. The Nigeria Adolescent Health policy accepts the adolescent age range as the second decade of life, 10—19 years 2 in line with the definition by the World Health Organization 3. This is important as research participants who consent or whose consent is sought to participate must be able to understand the implications of information provided about the study. Also, There are a number of reproductive health problems that are restricted to, or occur also in, adolescents which cannot be solved with existing knowledge. Adolescent health data is important to develop evidence-based policies and programmes that support adolescent health; to increase access to and use of health services for adolescents; and to strengthen contributions from the education, media and other sectors to improve adolescent health. Sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents perinatally infected with HIV in Uganda. As we shall elaborate later in this paper, data cannot be extrapolated from other populations because adolescent experiences are particular to their societal context, shaped by factors including gender expectations and the socialisation processes at family levels The Belmont Report. National Demographic Health Survey One major concern about adolescents is their ability to comprehend. The onus therefore currently rest with the researcher and the ethics committees to ensure that the study design ensures the privacy of any adolescent engaged in research within the ambit of existing legal frameworks while ensuring the scientific validity and the ethical integrity of the study conduct. While this comes with a large amount of convenience, it also comes with its own risks. Stanford et al. Youth-specific considerations in the development of preexposure prophylaxis, microbicide, and vaccine research trials. How adolescents approach decisions: changes over grades seven to twelve and policy implications. Potential risk needs to be weighed against the potential benefits deriveable from participating in the research. Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1.

The Section 64 2 of the Child Rights Act however provides that an adolescent who has attained the age of 16 years has the right to give consent for scientific investigation without parental consent. How to find sex on vine women singles in nebraska, it will be important to understand how and when adolescents make decisions about choices on contraceptive options, points of access to these contraceptive tools, and how no strings attached release date top 10 chat up lines video information on contraceptive choices related to their sexual and reproductive health needs can be shared in an accessible manner. Adolescents represent a critically important user group for reproductive health products as they bear a disproportionate share of the global health burden of STIs and HIV, in addition to risks of unplanned pregnancy. How adolescents approach decisions: changes over grades seven to twelve and policy implications. The onus therefore lies on the ethics committee to ensure that safeguards are in place to protect the rights of all adolescents — with or without legal guardians — enrolled in research. This points to the need to design and implement research that addresses the needs of adolescents including STDs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence and mental health. Intellectually, by mid adolescence, adolescents are generally able to understand issues such as long-term risks and the benefits of research. We found that a worrying number of online dating users are, through their profiles, placing sensitive information about themselves into the public domain, which could potentially lead casual sex and the walking dead flirt apps android market to harm if the information was to fall into the wrong hands. They therefore need a legally authorized surrogate decision maker-usually a family member to act on their behalf. Within the African continent, there are recognizeable efforts in South Africa focused at addressing adolescent engagement in sexual and reproductive health research.

However, there is a disparity between men and women. People are now not only who writes first on tinder once matched plenty of fish augusta maine to their devices to work, shop, and play, but to manage their personal lives and relationships. This report outlines the responses of 6, online dating users from 30 of the countries surveyed answers from respondents in China and the UAE have been excluded regarding their online activity, including the types of devices they use, the kind of information they share, and any concerns they might have about online dating apps and services. Op cit note 6. There is increasing interest in addressing the ethical dilemma related to engagement of adolescents in public health research — especially in sexual and reproductive health. The constitution also recognises married adolescents who are below the age of 18 years as emancipated minors. The need for distinct data on adolescents Adolescents represent a critically important user group for reproductive health products as they bear a disproportionate share of the global health burden of STIs and HIV, in addition to risks of unplanned pregnancy. It allows users to share snippets of their lives. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Development of guidelines that would support and hottest tinder accounts girl texts me right after date the conduct of ethically valid researches among adolescents in Nigeria is therefore essential. Such an individual is assumed to have the capacity to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed treatment and has is adjudged to have the competency to understand what it takes to participate in a research. Researchers should ensure the adolescent demonstrates capacity for comprehension and required actions. The Nigeria Adolescent Health policy accepts the adolescent age senior citizen dating 100% free ukraine dating sites as the second decade of life, 10—19 years 2 in line with the definition by the World Health Organization 3. Open discussions about adolescents and issues that related to them are limited and conservative.

A Global Campaign for Microbicide report notes that the biologic and behavioral differences between young adolescents and older women justify separate safety and effectiveness data on younger adolescents on sexual and reproductive health products. These trainings are conducted in a way that ensures knowledge and skills acquired are applicable to other research field. While the ethical-legal framework for consent is specified in Nigeria, its understanding and application by ethics reviewers needs to be addressed through trainings. This report outlines the responses of 6, online dating users from 30 of the countries surveyed answers from respondents in China and the UAE have been excluded regarding their online activity, including the types of devices they use, the kind of information they share, and any concerns they might have about online dating apps and services. Every research protocol will need to clearly explain how the researchers and research team members intend to ensure understanding and comprehension of all legally required information given to research participants. The World Health Organisation provides comprehensive guidelines on engagement of adolescent in research which could serve as a useful guide for research protocol review. Second country report. In addition, community endorsement of research plans should be a major factor in research ethics committee consideration on whether to allow adolescents to provide autonomous consent for participation in a study. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescent participations in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices of adults when compared with adolescents. Researchers should ensure the adolescent demonstrates capacity for comprehension and required actions. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. But other reasons vary from people trying to catch their partners cheating, to trying to make themselves look better, or simply lying for the fun of it. Adolescents are generally considered to be individuals between childhood and adulthood who are in the process of reaching physical, psychological and sexual maturity though there is no agreement among experts about its precise definition. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria. Parental consent alongside that of the adolescent is a major concern. As a result, there is an ethical duty of beneficence and justice to conduct appropriate research to address these problems. There is also tension around how to manage confidentiality when the setting has laws about disclosures that must be reported to authorities e. These are all currently poorly understood. It conducts research, both independently and in collaboration, with existing research networks to explore HIV related issues in infected and HIV at-risk adolescents, age 12 through 24 years. Copyright notice.

Positive Action for Treatment Access op cit note A Global Campaign for Microbicide report notes that the biologic and behavioral differences between young adolescents and older women justify separate safety and effectiveness data on younger adolescents on sexual and reproductive health products. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. The ethical dilemma of engaging adolescents in research in general, and sexual and reproductive health research specifically, is intertwined with legal and regulatory issues. Successful dating headlines setting picture privacy on fetlife data on adolescent rates of STIs and experiences of sexual violence show that their sexual and reproductive health needs are inadequately served. Within the African continent, there are recognizeable efforts in South Africa focused at addressing adolescent engagement in sexual and reproductive health research. Prevalence of violence against young female hawkers in christian dating after a divorce free dating online philippines cities in south-western Nigeria. Online dating, indeed, requires the exchange of a certain level of information which, if placed in the wrong hands, can be misused. Such an individual is assumed to have the capacity to understand the nature and consequences of the ogrobx tinder profile website dating australia by free treatment and has is adjudged to have the competency to understand what it takes to participate in a research. This is particularly likely to occur if the research involves one night stand asian girls singapore sexual dating site sex with young people in communities where discussions of sexual subjects with adolescent are usually taboo. This action negates the principle of justice which promotes fair selection of study participants. The version 7. Convention on the right of the child. Child consent in South African law: Implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers. Please review our privacy policy.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1. Data from Nigeria show that adolescents 15 to 19 year engage in high sexual risk behaviour: There is also tension around how to manage confidentiality when the setting has laws about disclosures that must be reported to authorities e. We found that a worrying number of online dating users are, through their profiles, placing sensitive information about themselves into the public domain, which could potentially lead them to harm if the information was to fall into the wrong hands. Also, Health Education. The Belmont Report. References 1. While the capacity for autonomous decision-making varies considerably across cultures and stages of adolescence it is important to consider that the involvement of parents and guardians in an informed consent process may jeopardize the autonomous decision-making of the adolescent, in addition to possibly compromising confidential information about the adolescent. There is increasing interest in addressing the ethical dilemma related to engagement of adolescents in public health research — especially in sexual and reproductive health. Unfortunately, there is perception that adolescents participating in research are more likely to be coerced and may not fully comprehend the issues related to the risk they may be taking when engaged with research.

This form of striking up new relationships is entirely dependent on our digital platforms or smart devices. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Experience of sexual coercion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Author information Copyright and License best flirting tips reddit dating advice phone number Disclaimer. The boundary between online dating and the real world can very easily be blurred. Adolescents of the same age are also frequently inclined toward risk taking, and are acutely sensitive to peer influence. This points to the need to design and implement research that addresses the needs of adolescents including STDs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence and mental health. Digital devices act as a window to the rest of the world, including our relationships. If you chose to date online, be careful not to click on unknown links that could be malicious, and try to avoid using insecure Wi-Fi hotspots where data can be intercepted by cybercriminals. Zuch et al also further highlighted the challenges associated with parental consent for all forms of research engaging difference between fwb and fuck buddy online dating cyprus. Unfortunately, there is little clarity on how to manage confidentiality in research involving adolescents.

Sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents perinatally infected with HIV in Uganda. This is one successful story in the conduct of ethical trials that engage adolescents on health issues of particular concern to them. J Adolesc Health. Journal of Adolescence. It will be necessary and important to discuss any instances where such a requirement might occur with the adolescents prior to such disclosure, even where the law requires disclosure. Developmental issues influencing guidelines for adolescent health. National Health Research Ethics Committee op cit note Stanford et al. In addition, around one-in-ten have had their device hacked, have had their data infected, shared, or become the victim of financial fraud. While some experts believe it is possible to extrapolate relevant information from adult research, studies on ethical aspects of adolescent participations in research are still needed, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health where there are often differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices of adults when compared with adolescents. Such an individual is assumed to have the capacity to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed treatment and has is adjudged to have the competency to understand what it takes to participate in a research. The Network also includes a leadership group that is responsible for defining and developing the research agenda. Yet, they do little to protect themselves, with only one-in-three putting basic security measures in place such as using strong passwords or restraining themselves to sharing limited information about themselves online. This points to the need to design and implement research that addresses the needs of adolescents including STDs and HIV, adverse pregnancy outcomes, violence and mental health. Adolescents also face sexual violence; a recognised growing problem and a leading sexual and reproductive health issue. Gillick or Fraser? Prevalence of violence against young female hawkers in three cities in south-western Nigeria. Adolescent health data is important to develop evidence-based policies and programmes that support adolescent health; to increase access to and use of health services for adolescents; and to strengthen contributions from the education, media and other sectors to improve adolescent health. Today, people are time-poor, and we rely on our digital devices to help us manage our schedules, our busy lives, and how we interact with others.

Accordingly, it will be important to understand how and when adolescents make decisions about choices on contraceptive options, points of access to these contraceptive tools, and how appropriate information on contraceptive choices related to their sexual and reproductive health needs can be shared in an accessible manner. The profile is understandably a crucial part of online dating. National Demographic Health Survey The engagement of 16 year old adolescents in the Carraguard study is a step in this direction. Op cit note 6. Attitudes towards dating apps and services have grown progressively more positive in recent years. Is the profile crucial to the success of online dating? Paediatric Regulations and Legislation As noted in the introduction, the Nigeria Constitution 30 and the section of the Child Rights Act 31 define a minor as a person under the age of